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Publications supported by IRCEB funds:

Alford RA,   Richards SJ, McDonald KR. 2001. Amphibians, Biodiversity of. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 1:159-169.

Alford RA, Dixon PM & Pechmann JHK. 2001. Ecology: Global amphibian population declines. Nature 412:449-500.

Alford RA, Richards SJ & McDonald KR. 2006. Biodiversity of Amphibians. In Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2nd Ed. Levin S, editor. Academic Press.

Alford RA, Bradfield KS, Richards SJ. 2007. Global warming and amphibian losses. Nature 447(7144):E3-E4.

Alford, R. A., and J. J. L. Rowley.  2008.  Amphibian declines in Australia.  Pp. 72-73 In Stuart, S.N., Hoffman, M., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Berridge, R.J., Ramani, P., and Young, B.E., eds.  Threatened Amphibians of the World.  Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

 Alford, R. A. 2010. Declines and the global status of amphibians.  Chapter 2 (Pp. 13-45) In Sparling, D.W., ed., Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles.  Second Edition.  SETAC Press. 

Anderson PK, Cunningham AA, Patel NG, Morales FJ, Epstein PR & Daszak P. 2004. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:535-544.

Annis SL, Dastoor FP, Ziel H, Daszak P, & Longcore JE. 2004. A DNA-based assay identifies Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40:420-428.

Banning JL, Weddle AL, Wahl GW III, Simon,MA, Lauer A, Walters RL, Harris RN. 2008. Antifungal skin bacteria, embryonic survival, and communal nesting in four-toed salamanders, Hemidactylium scutatum. Oecologia 156:423-429.

Belden LK, Harris RN. 2007. Infectious diseases in wildlife: the community ecology context. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 5:533-539.

Berger et al. 1998. Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; USA 95:9031-9036. [Download PDF]*

Berger L, Hyatt AD, Olsen V, Hengstberger SG, Boyle D, Marantelli G, Humphries K & Longcore KE. 2002. Production of polyclonal antibodies to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and their use in an immunoperoxidase test for chytridiomycosis in ampibians. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 48:213-220.

Berger L, Speare R, Hines HB, Marantelli G, Hyatt AD, McDonald KR, Skerratee LF, Olsen V, Clarke JM, Gillespie G, Mahony M, Sheppard N, Williams C & Tyler MJ. 2004. Effect of season and temperature on mortality in amphibians due to chytridiomycosis. Australian Veterinary Journal 82:31-36.

Berger L, Speare R, & Middleton D. 2004. A squamous cell carcinoma and an adenocarcinoma in Australian tree frogs. Australian Veterinary Journal 82:88-90.

Berger L, Speare R, Hines HB, Marantelli G, Hyatt AD, Olsen V, McDonald KR, Clarke J, Gillespie G, Mahony M, Sheppard N, Williams C, & Tyler M. 2004. Mortality in amphibians due to chytridiomycosis increases in winter and with lower experimental temperatures. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(7):434-439.

Berger L, Hyatt AD, Speare R & Longcore JE. 2005. Life cycle stages of the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 68:51-63.

Berger L, Marantelli G, Skerratt LF & Speare R. 2005. Virulence of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, varies with the strain. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 68:47-50.

Berger L, Speare R & Skerratt L. 2005. Distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and pathology in the skin of green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with severe chytridiomycosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 68:65-70.

Blaustein AR, Hatch AC, Belden LK & Kiesecker JM. 2004. Multiple causes for declining amphibian populations. In Experimental Approaches to Conservation Biology pp35-66. Gordon M & Bartol S, editors. University of California Press.

Blaustein AR, Romansic JM, Scheessele AE, Han BA, Pessier AP & Longcore JE. 2005. Interspecific variation in susceptibility of frog tadpoles to the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Conservation Biology 19:1460-1468.

Blaustein AR & A. Dobson. 2006. Extinction: A message from the frogs. Nature. 439:143-144.

Blaustein AR, Bancroft BA. 2007. Amphibian population declines: Evolutionary considerations. Bioscience 57(5):437-444.

Blaustein, A, Alford, RA, Harris, RN.  2010.  The value of well designed experiments in studying diseases with special reference to amphibians, Ecohealth.  Published online 29/12/2009, DOI: 10.1007/s10393-009-0266-5.

Bolker BM, de Castro F, Stofer A, Mech SG, Harvey E, Collins JP. 2008. Disease as a selective force precluding widespread cannibalism: A case study of an iridovirus of tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum. Evolutionary Ecology Research 10:105-128.

Bollinger TK, Mao J, Schock D, Brigham RM, & Chinchar VG. 1999. Pathology, isolation and preliminary molecular characterization of a novel Ranavirus from tiger salamanders in Saskatchewan. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 35:413-429.

Boyle DG, Hyatt AD, Daszak P, Berger L, Longcore JE, Porter D, Hengstberger SG & Olsen V. 2003. Cryo-archiving of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and other Chytridiomycetes. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 56:59-64.

Bradley GA, Rosen PC, Sredl MJ, Jones TR & Longcore JE. 2002. Chytridiomycosis in three species of native Arizona frogs. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38:206-212.

Brucker RM, Baylor CM, Walters RL et al. 2008. The identification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol as an antifungal metabolite produced by cutaneous bacteria of the salamander Plethodon cinereus. Journal of Chemical Ecology 34(1):39-43

Brunner JL & Sesterhenn T. 2001. Disinfection of Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV). Froglog 48:2.

Brunner JL, Schock DM, Davidson EW & Collins JP. 2004. Intraspecific reservoirs: Complex life history and the persistence of a lethal ranavirus. Ecology 85:560-566.

Brunner JL, Richards K & Collins JP. 2005. Dose and host characteristics influence virulence of ranavirus infections. Oecologia, 144:399-406.

Brunner JL, Schock DM, Collins JP. 2007. Transmission dynamics of the amphibian ranavirus Ambystoma tigrinum virus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 77(2):87-95.

Bryan L, Silphadaung U, Noga E, Rollins-Smith L & Chinchar VG. 2004. Inactivation of viruses infecting ectothermic animals by amphibian and piscine antimicrobial peptides. Virology 323:268-275.

Carey C, Cohen N & Rollins-Smith LA. 1999. Amphibian declines: An immunological perspective. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 23:459-472.

Carey C, Heyer WR, Wilkinson J, Alford RA, Arntzen JW, Halliday T, Hungerford L, Lips KR, Middleton EM, Orchard SA & Rand AS. 2001. Amphibian declines and environmental change: Use of remote- sensing data to identify environmental correlates. Conservation Biology 15:903-913.

Carey C, Bradford DF, Brunner JL, Collins JP, Davidson EW, Longcore JE, Ouellet M, Pessier AP & Schock DM. 2003. Biotic factors in amphibian population declines. In Amphibian Decline: An integrated analysis of multiple stressor effects pp153-208. Linder G, Sparling DW & Krest SK, editors. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC).

Carey C, Pessier AP & Peace AD. 2003. Pathogens and infectious disease. In Amphibian Conservation pp125-136. Semlitch RD, editor. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.

Carey C. 2005. How physiological methods and concepts can be useful in conservation biology. Integrative & Comparitive Biology 45:4-11.

Carey C & Alexander MA. 2003. Climate change and amphibian declines: is there a link? Diversity and Distributions 9:111-121.

Carey C, Bruzgul JE, Livo LJ, Walling ML, Kuehl KA, Dixon BF, Pessier AP, Alford RA & Rogers KB. 2006. Experimental exposures boreal toads (Bufo boreas) to a pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). EcoHealth 3:5-21.

Carey, C. & Livo L. J.. (2009) Chytridiomycosis in Woodhouse’s toad (Bufowoodhousii)  in Colorado.  J. Herpetol. 40:50-53

Cashins, S., Alford, RA, Skerratt, LF.  2008.  Lethal effect of latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves on tadpoles.  Herpetological Review 39:298-301.  C

Cashins, S., Skerratt, LF, and RA Alford.  2008.  Sodium hypochlorite denatures the DNA of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 80:63-67.

Chinchar VG, Wang J, Murti G, Carey C & Rollins-Smith L. 2001. Inactivation of frog virus 3 and channel catfish virus by esculentin-2P and ranatuerin-2P, two antimicrobial peptides isolated from frog skin. Virology 288:351-357.

Chinchar VG. 2002. Ranaviruses. In The Springer Index of Viruses. Tidona CA & Darai G, editors. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.

Chinchar VG. 2002. Ranaviruses (Family Iridoviridae): emerging cold-blooded killers. Archives of Virology 147:447-470.

Chinchar VG, Bryan L, Wang J, Long S & Chinchar GD. 2003. Induction of apoptosis in frog virus 3-infected cells. Virology 306:303-312.

Chinchar VG, Bryan L, Silphadaung U, Noga E, Wade D & Rollins-Smith L. 2004. Inactiviation of viruses infecting ectothermic animals by amphibian piscine antimicrobial peptides. Virology 323:268-275.

Chinchar VG, Essbauer S, He JG, Hyatt A, Miyazaki T, Seligy V & William T. 2005. Iridoviridae. In Virus Taxonomy: 8th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) pp163-175. Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U & Ball LA, editors. Elsevier/Academic Press, London.

Chinchar VG & Hyatt A. 2006.  Family Iridoviridae: General Features and Replication Strategy. In Encyclopedia of Virology, 3rd Ed. P. 167-174.

Chinchar VG, Hyatt A, Miyazaki T & Williams T. 2006.  Iridoviruses: a novel virus family infecting cold-blooded vertebrates and invertebrates.  Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology.

Chinchar VG, Hyatt A, Miyazaki T, Williams T. 2009.  Family Iridoviridae: Poor viral relations no longer. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 328:123-170.

Chinchar VG.  Ranaviruses, IN:  Springer Index of Viruses, 2nd edition, (C. Tidona and G. Darai, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, DE  (print and online editions)

Chinchar VG.  Megalocytiviruses, IN:  Springer Index of Viruses, 2nd edition, (C. Tidona and G. Darai, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, DE  (print and online editions)

Cohen N. 2006. The Uses and Abuses of Psychoneuroimmunology: A Global Overview. Brain, Behavior, and Immununit 20:99-112.

Cohen, N, Kinney KS. 2007. Evolution of neural immune system interactions. Psychoneuroimmunology, 4th edition Elsevier 1-38.

Collins JP. 2003. What can we learn from community genetics? Ecology 84:574-577.

Collins JP & Storfer A. 2003. Amphibian declines: Sorting the hypotheses. Diversity and Distributions 9:89-98.

Collins JP, Brunner JL, Miera V, Parris MJ, Schock DM & Storfer A. 2003. Ecology and evolution of infectious disease. In Amphibian Conservation pp137-151. Semlitsch RD, editor. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.

Collins J P, Brunner J L, Jancovich JK & Schock DM. 2004. A model host-pathogen system for studying infectious disease dynamics in amphibians: tiger salamanders (Abystoma tigrinum) and Ambystoma tigrinum virus. Herpetological Journal 14:195-200.

Collins JP, Cohen N, Davidson EW, Longcore JE & Storfer A. 2005. Global amphibian declines: an interdisciplinary research challenge for the 21st century. In Status and conservation of U.S. amphibians. Volume 1: Conservation essays pp. 43-52. Lannoo MJ, editor. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Collins JP, Cohen N, Davidson EW, Longcore JE & Storfer A. 2005. Meeting the challenge of amphibian declines with an interdisciplinary research program. In Declining amphibians: A United States' response to the global problem pp. 23-27. Lannoo MJ, editor. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Collins JP & Halliday T. 2005. Forecasting changes in amphibian biodiversity: aiming at a moving target. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 360:309-314.

Collins JP & Crump, M.L. 2009. Extinction in Our Times: Global Amphibian Decline.  Oxford University Press. 273 pgs.

Colon-Gaud, C., M. R. Whiles, S. S Kilham, K. R. Lips, C. M. Pringle, S. Connelly, and S. D. Peterson.  2009.  Assessing ecological responses to catastrophic amphibian declines: patterns of macroinvertebrate production and food web structure in upland Panamanian streams.  Limnology & Oceanography 54(1): 331–343.

Conlon JM, Sonnevend A , Patel M, Davidson C, Nielsen PF, Pal T & Rollins-Smith LA. 2003. Isolation of peptides of the brevinin-1 family with potent candidacidal activity from the skin secretions of the frog Rana boylii. Journal of Peptide Research 62:207-213.

Conlon JM, Woodhams DC, Raza H, et al.  2007. Peptides with differential cytolytic activity from skin secretions of the lemur leaf frog Hylomantis lemur (Hylidae:Phyllomedusinae) Toxicon 50(4):498-506.  

Connelly S, Bixby RJ, Pringle CM, Brenes R, Whiles MR, Lips KR, Kilham S, Huryn AD.  2008.  Changes in stream primary producer communities resulting from loss of tadpoles: can small-scale experiments predict effects of large-scale catastrophic amphibian declines?  Ecosystems.11(8): 1262-1276.

Colon-Gaud, C, Peterson S, Whiles MR, Kilham SS, Lips KR, Pringle CM.  2008.  Allochthonous litter inputs, organic matter standing stocks, and organic seston dynamics in upland Panamanian streams: potential effects of larval amphibians on organic matter dynamics.  Hydrobiologia 603:301-312.

Coupar BE, Goldie SG, Hyatt AD & Pallister JA. 2005. Identification of a Bohle iridovirus thymidine kinase gene and demonstration of activity using vaccinia virus. Archives of Virology 150(9):1797-812.

Cunningham AA, Daszak P & Hyatt AD. 2001. Amphibia. In Quarantine and Health Screening Protocols for Wildlife prior to Translocation and Release into the Wild pp74-79. Woodford MH, editor. Office International des Epizooties (OIE), Paris, France & IUCN Species Survival Commission's Veterinary Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Cunningham AA, Daszak P & Rdriguez JP. 2003. Pathogen Pollution: defining a parasitological threat to biodiversity conservation. Journal of Parasitology 89(Suppl.):S78-S83.

Cunningham AA, Daszak P & Patl N. 2004. Emerging disease threats to tropical forests. In: Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests. Laurance WF & Peres CA, editors. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Cunningham AA, Garner TW, Aguilar-Sanchez V, Banks B, Foster J, Sainsbury AW, Perkins M, Walker SF, Hyatt AD, Fisher MC. 2005. Emergence of amphibian chytridiomycosis in Britain. The Veterinary Record 157(13):386-387.

Cunningham AA, Daszak P & Patel N. 2006. Emerging disease threats to tropical forests. In Emerging Threats to Tropical Forests. Laurance WF& Peres CA, editors. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Daszak P & Cunningham AA. 1999. Extinction by infection. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:279.

Daszak P, Berger L, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD, Green DE & Speare R. 1999. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5:735-748.

Daszak P, Cunningham AA & Hyatt AD. 2000. Conservation Conundrum - response. Science 288:2318.

Daszak P & Cunningham AA. 2000. More on the ecological impact of fungal infections on wildlife populations. Parisitology Today 16:404-405.

Daszak P, Cunningham AA & Hyatt AD. 2000. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife-threats to biodiversity and human health. Science 287:443-449. [Download PDF]*

Daszak P, Cunningham AA & Hyatt AD. 2001. Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife. Acta Tropica 78:103-116. [Download PDF]*

Daszak P, Cunningham AA & Hyatt AD. 2001. Viral emergence in the human-wildlife continuum. In Emergence and Control of Zoonotic Ortho- and Paramyxovirus Diseases. Dodet B, editor. John Libbey Eurotext, Paris.

Daszak P, Cunningham AA & Hyatt AD. 2001. Draft guidelines for international translocation of amphibians with respect to infectious diseases. In Developing management strategies to control amphibian diseases: decreasing the risks due to communicable diseases. Attachment 6 pp171-183. Speare R & Steering Committee of Getting the Jump on Amphibian Disease, editors. School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville.

Daszak P & Cunningham AA. 2002. Emerging infectious diseases: A key role for Conservation Medicine. In Conservation Medicine: Ecological health in practice pp432. Aguirre AA, Ostfeld RS, House CA, Tabor GM & Pearl MC, editors. Oxford University Press, New York.

Daszak P & Cunningham AA. 2003. Anthropogenic change, biodiversity loss and a new agenda for emerging diseases. Journal of Parasitology 89(Suppl.):S37-S41.

Daszak P, Cunningham AA & Hyatt AD. 2003. Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. Diversity and Distributions 9:141-150.

Daszak P, Strieby A, Brown CC, Cunningham AA, Longcore JS & Porter D. 2004. Experimental evidence that the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is a potential carrier of chytridiomycosis, an emerging fungal disease of amphibians. Herpetological Journal 14:201-207.

Daszak P, Tabor GM, Kilpatrick AM, Epstein J & Plowright R. 2004. Conservation Medicine and a new agenda for emerging diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1026:1-11.

Daszak P, Scott DE, Kilpatrick AM, Faggioni C, Gibbons JW & Porter D. 2006. Amphibian population declines at the Savannah River Site are linked to climate, not chytridiomycosis. Ecology. 86(12): 3232-3237.

Daszak, P., Lips, K., Alford, R., Carey, C., Collins, J., Cunningham, A., Harris, R., and S. Ron.  2007.  Chapter 4.  Infectious diseases.  Pp. 21-25 In: Gascon, C., Collins, J.P., Moore, R.D., Church, D.R., Mackay, J.E., Mendelson, J., eds., Amphibian Conservation Action Plan.  Proceedings:  IUCN/SSC Amphibian Conservation Summit 2005.  IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.  ISBN 978-2-8317-1008-2

Davidson EW, Jancovich JK, Borland S, Newbery M & Gresens J. 2003. Dermal lesions, hemorrhage, and limb swelling in laboratory axolotls. Lab Animal 32(3):23-25.

Davidson EW, Parris M, Collins JP, Longcore JE, Pessier A & Brunner J. 2003. Pathogenicity and transmission of Chytridiomycosis in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). Copeia (3):196-201.

Davidson C, Benard MF, Shaffer HB, et al.  2007. Effects of chytrid and carbaryl exposure on survival, growth and peptide defenses in foothill yellow-legged frogs. Environmental Science and Technology 41(5):1771-1776.  

Davidson C, Knapp RA. 2007. Multiple stressors and amphibian declines: Dual impacts of pesticides and fish on yellow-legged frogs. Ecological Applications 17:(2):587-597.

de Castro F & Bolker BM. 2005. Parasite establishment and host extinction in model communtities. Oikos 111(3):501-513.

de Castro F & Bolker BM. 2005. Mechanisms of disease-induced extinction. Ecology Letters 8:117-126.

Docherty DE, Meteyer CU, Brannian R, Wang J, Mao J, Case S & Chinchar VG. 2003. Diagnostic and molecular evaluation of three iridovirus-associated salamander mortality events. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39:556-566.

Dybdahl M & Storfer A. 2003. Parasite local adaptation: Red Queen versus Suicide King.Trends in Ecology and Evolution18:523-530.

Dziminski M & Alford RA. 2005. Patterns and fitness consequences of intraclutch variation in egg provisioning in tropical Australian frogs. Oecologia 146:98-109.

Fellers GM, GreenDE & Longcore JE. 2001. Oral chytridiomycosis in the mountain yellow-legged frog. Copeia. 4:945-953.

Felton A, Alford RA, Felton AM & Schwarzkopf L. 2006. Multiple mate choice criteria and the importance of age for male mating success in the Microhylid frog, Cophixalus ornatus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 59:786-795.

Forson DF & Storfer A. 2006. Effects of atrazine and iridovirus infection on survival and life history characteristics in long-toed salamanders, Ambystoma macrodactylum. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25:168-173.

Forson DF & Storfer A. 2006. Atrazine increases ranavirus susceptibility in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. Ecological Applications 16(6):2325.

Fournier M, Robert J, Salo H, Dautremepuits C & Brousseau P. 2005. Immunotoxicology of amphibians. Rev. Applied Herpetology 2:297-309.

Fournier M, Harri M, Salo H M, Dautremepuits C, Robert J & Brousseau P. 2006. Immunotoxicology of amphibians. Rev. Applied Herpetology. 2:297-309.

Fox SF, Greer AL, Torres-Cervantes R & Collins JP. 2006. First case of ranavirus-associated morbidity and mortality in natural populations of a South American frog Atelognathus patagonicus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 72:87-92.

Frias-Alvarez P, Vredenburg VT, Familiar-Lopez M, et al. 2007. Chytridiomycosis survey in wild and captive Mexican amphibians. Ecohealth 5(1):18-26.

Funk WC, Donnelly MA & Lips KR. 2005. Alternative views of amphibian toe-clipping. Nature 433:193.

Gadagkar SR, Rosenberg MS & Kumar S. 2005. Inferring species phylogenies from multiple genes: concatenated sequence tree versus consensus gene tree. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular & Developemental Evolution) 304B:64-74.

Gantress J, Bell A, Maniero G, Chinchar VG, Cohen N & Robert J. 2003. Xenopus, a model to study immune response to iridovirus. Virology 311:254-252.

Gantress J, Maniero GD, Cohen N & Robert J. 2003. Development and characterization of a model system to study amphibian immune responses to iridoviruses. Virology 381:254-262.

Garcia TS, Romansic JM, Blaustein AR. 2006. Survival of three species of anuran metamorphs exposed to UV-B radiation and the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72(2):163-169.

Goyos A, Gantress J, Cohen N, & Robert J. 2004. Anti-tumor classical MHC-unrestricted CD8 T-cell cytotoxicity elicited by the heat shock protein pg96. European Journal of Immunology 34:2449-2458.

Greer AL & Collins JP. 2007. Sensitivity of a diagnostic test for amphibian Ranavirus varies with sampling protocol. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 43(3): 525-532.

Greer AL, Collins JP. 2008.  Habitat fragmentation as a result of biotic and abiotic factors controls pathogen transmission throughout a host population. Journal of Animal Ecology 77(2):364-369

Greer AL, Schock DM, Brunner JL, Johnson RA, Picco AM, Cashins SD, Alford RA, Skerratt LF, & Collins JP. 2009. Guidelines for the safe use of disposable gloves with amphibian larvae in the light of pathogens and possible toxic effects.  Herpetological Review 40(2): 145-147.

Guselnikov SV, Bell A, Najakshin AM, Robert J & Taranin AV. 2003. Signaling FcRgamma and TCRzeta subunit homologs in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 27:727-733.

Han, BA,  Bradley PW, Blaustein AR.  2008. Ancient behaviors of larval amphibians and an emerging fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.63(2): 241-250.

Harris, R.N., Lauer, A., Simon, M. A. Banning, J. L., and Alford, R. A.  2009.  Addition of antifungal skin bacteria to amphibians ameliorates the effects of chytridiomycosis.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 83:11–16.

Hanselmann R, Rodriguez A, Lampo M, Daszak P, Fajardo-Ramos L, Aguirre AA & Rodriguez JP. 2004. Presence of an emerging pathogen of amphibians in recently-introduced Rana catesbeiana in Venezuela. Biological Conservation 120:115-119.

Hauselberger K & Alford RA. 2005. Effects of season and weather on calling in the Australian microhylid frogs Austrochaperina robusta and Cophixalus ornatus. Herpetologica 61:349-363.

Hero, J-M., Richards, S., Alford, R.A., Allison, A., Bishop, P., Gunther, R., Iskander, D., Kraus, F., Lemckert, F., Menzies, J., Roberts, D., and Tyler, M.  2008.  Chapter 6.  Amphibians of the Australasian Realm.  Pp. 65-70 In Stuart, S.N., Hoffman, M., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Berridge, R.J., Ramani, P., and Young, B.E., eds.  Threatened Amphibians of the World.  Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, et al. 2007. A higher-level phylgenetic classification of the Fungi.  Mycological Research 111:509-547:Part 5  

Horton T, Stewart R, Cohen N, Rau L, Ritchie P, Watson M, Robert J, Horton J.2003. Ontogeny of Xenopus NK cells in the absence of MHC class I antigens. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 27:715-726.

Hungerford LL. 2003. Using simulation models to assess effects of disease on populations. In Animal Movements and Disease Risk: A Workbook. Armstrong D, Jakob-Hoff R & Seal US, editors. Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN). CBSG, Apple Valley, MN.

Hyatt AD, Gould AR, Zupanovic Z, Cunningham AA, Hengstberger S, Whittington RJ, Kattenbelt J & Coupar BEH. 2000. Comparative studies of piscine and amphibian iridoviruses. Archives of Virology 145:301-331.

Hyatt AD, Chinchar VG.  2008.  Fish, amphibian, and reptilian iridoviruses (Iridoviridae).  IN:  Encyclopedia of Virology, 3rd edition pp. 155-160.

James TY, Porter D, Leander CA, Vilgalys R & Longcore JE. 2000. Molecular phylogenetics of the Chytridiomycota supports the utility of ultrastructural data in chytrid systematics. Canadian Journal of Botany 78:336-350.

James TY & Vilgalys R. 2006. Amphibian chytridiomycosis as an emerging infectious disease of wildlife: what can we learn from the earliest diverging fungi? In Molecular principles of fungal pathogenesis pp 271-278. Heitman J, Filler SG, Edwards JE Jr & Mitchell AP, editors. ASM Press, Washington D.C.

James TY, Letcher PM, Longcore JE, et al.  2006. A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota). Mycologia 98(6):860-871  

Jancovich JK, Davidson EW, Seilor A & Jacobs BL. 2001. Transmission of the Ambystoma tigrinum virus to alternative hosts. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 46:159-163.

Jancovich J, Mao J, Chinchar VG, Wyatt C, Case ST, Kumar S, Valente G, Subramanian S, Davidson EW, Collins JP & Jacobs BL. 2003. Genomic sequence of a ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) associated with salamander mortalities in North America. Virology 316:90-103.

Jancovich JK, Davidson EW, Parameswaran N, Mao J, Chinchar VG, Collins JP, Jacobs BL & Storfer A. 2005. Evidence for emergence of an amphibian iridoviral disease because of human-enhanced spread. Molecular Biology 14:213-224.

Jancovich, J.K., M. Bremont, J.W. Touchman and B.L. Jacobs (2010). Evidence for multiple recent host shifts among the ranaviruses (family Iridoviridae). J Virol, 84(6); 2636-2647.

Johnson ML, Berger L, Philips L & Speare R. 2003. In vitro evaluation of chemical disinfectants and physical techniques against the amphibian chytrid, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 57:255-260.

Johnson ML & Speare R. 2003.Survival of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in water: quarantine and control implications. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9(8):922-925.

Johnson ML & Speare R. 2005. Possible modes of dissemination of the amphibian chytrid, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in the environment. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 65:181-186.

Kattenbelt JA, Hyatt AD & Gould AR. 2000. Recovery of ranavirus dsDNA from formalin-fixed archival material. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 39:151-154.

Kellner J & Alford RA. 2003. The ontogeny of fluctuating asymmetry. American Naturalist 161:931-947

Kilham, S. S., M. Hunte-Brown, P. Verburg, C. M. Pringle, M. R. Whiles, K. R. Lips and E. Zandona.  2009.  Challenges for interpreting stable isotope fractionation of carbon and nitrogen in tropical aquatic ecosystems. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 30(5): 749-753.

King JD, Rollins-Smith LA, Nielsen PF & Conlon JM. 2005. Characterization of a peptide from the skin secretions of male specimens of the frog, Leptodactylus fallax that stimulates aggression in male frogs. Peptides 26:597-601.

Kinney KS and Cohen N. 2005. Increased splenocyte mitogeness following sympathetic denervation in Xenopus laevis. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 29:287-93.

Kinney KS, Cohen N.  2008,. Neural-immune system interactions in Xenopus. Frontiers in Bioscience. 14:112-129.

Kirshtein JD, Anderson CW, Wood JS, et al. 2007. Quantitiative PCR detection of Batrachocytrium dendrobatidis DNA from sediment and water. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 77(1):11-15

Koontz F & Daszak P. 2005. Sprawl and disease. In Nature in Fragments pp144-154. Johnson E & Klemens MW, editors. Columbia University Press, New York.

Kusrini MD, Alford RA, Fitri A, Nasir DM, & Rahardyansah S. 2004. Morphological abnormalities in frogs of West Java, Indonesia. Froglog 64:1-2.

Kusrini MD & Alford RA. 2006. The application of skeletochronology to determine ages of three species of frogs in West Java, Indonesia. Herpetological Review 37:423-425.

Kusrini MD & Alford RA. 2006. Indonesia's trade in frogs' legs. Traffic Bulletin 21:13-24.

Kusrini, M. D., and R. A. Alford.  2008.  Frogs for human consumption.  P. 28 In Stuart, S.N., Hoffman, M., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Berridge, R.J., Ramani, P., and Young, B.E., eds.  Threatened Amphibians of the World.  Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

La Marca E, Lips KR, Lotters S, Puschendorf R, Ibanez R, Ron S, Rueda-Almonacid JV, Schulte R, MartyC, Castro F, Manzilla-Puppo J, Garcia-Perez, JE, Bustamante MR, Coloma LA, Merino-Viteri A, Toral E, Bolanos F, Chaves G, Pounds A & Young B. 2005. Catastrophic population declines and extinctions in Neotropical Harequin Frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus). Biotropica 37(2):190-201.

Lampo M, Barrio-Amos C & Daszak P. 2006. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in the recently rediscovered Atelopus mucubajiensis (Anura, Bufonidae), a critically endangered species from the Venezuelan Andes. EcoHealth 3(4):299-302.

Lampo M, Rodríguez A, La Marca E, & Han BA. 2006. A chytridiomycosis epidemic and a severe dry season precede disappearance of Atelopus species from the Venezuelan Andes. Journal of Herpetology 16(4):395-402

Langkilde TL & Alford RA. 2002. The tail wags the frog: attached harmonic radar transponders affect behavior in Litoria lesueuri. Journal of Herpetology 36:711-715.

Lauer A, Simon MA, Banning JL et al. 2008. Diversity of cutaneous bacteria with antifungal activity isolated from female four-toed salamanders. Isme Journal 2(2):145-157

Lauer, A, Simon MA, Banning JL, et al. 2007. Common cutaneous bacteria from the eastern red-backed salamander can inhibit pathogenic fungi. Copeia 3:360-640

Lips KR, Reaser JK, Young BE & Ibiez R. 2001. El Monitoreo de Anfibios en America Latina: Un manual para coordinar esfuerzos. In SSAR Herpetological Circular. 116pp.

Lips KR, Green DE & Papendick R. 2003. Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from southern Costa Rica. Journal of Herpetology 37(1):215-218.

Lips KR, Reeve J & Witters L. 2003. Ecological factors predicting amphibian population declines in Central America. Conservation Biology 17(4):1078-1088.

Lips KR. 2003. Eyewitnesses to History? Book review of Amphibians of Honduras. Diversity and Distribution 9(2):165-166.

Lips KR, Mendelson JR III, Muñoz Alonso A, Canseco-Marquez L & Mulcahy DG. 2004. Direct evidence of declines in amphibian populations in montane southern Mexico. Biological Conservation 119:555-564.

Lips KR & Donnelly MA. 2005. What the tropics can tell us about declining amphibian populations: current patterns and future prospects. In North American Amphibians: Status and Conservation pp388-406. Lannoo MJ, editor. University of California Press.

Lips KR. 2005. Quantification of selection and male reproductive success in Hyla calypsa. In Ecology and Evolution in the tropics: a herpetological perspective pp215-226. Donnelly MA, Crother BI, Guyer C, Wake MH & White ME, editors. University of Chicago Press.

Lips KR, Burrowes PA, Mendelson III JR & Parra-Olea G. 2005. Amphibian declines in Latin America: widespread declines, extinctions and impacts. Biotropica 37(2):163-165.

Lips KR, Burrowes PA, Mendelson III JR & Parra-Olea G. 2005. Amphibian declines in Latin America: a synthesis. Biotropica 37(2):222-226.

Lips KR. 2005. Amphibians and reptiles of La Selva, Costa Rica, and the Caribbean Slope: a comprehensive guide (Book Review). The Quarterly Review of Biology 80:363.

Lips KR, Brem F, Brenes R, Reeve JD, Alford RA, Voyles J, Carey C, Pessier A, Livo L & JP Collins. 2006. Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 103:3165-3170

Lips KR, Diffendorfer J, Mendelson JR, ,et al. 2008. Riding the wave: Reconciling the roles of disease and climate change in amphibian declines. Pls Biology 6(3):441-MAR 2008

Lips, K. R.  2009.  Book Review:  Malformed Frogs:  The collapse of aquatic ecosystems. Quarterly Review of Biology 84(1): 115.
Lips, K. R.  2009.  Save the frogs – and perhaps ourselves.  Op-ed article. Baltimore Sun. 1 September 2009

Little EE, Calfee RD, Fabacher DL, Carey C, Blazer VS & Middleton EM. 2003. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on toad early life stages. Envir Sci Pollution Res 10:167-172.

Longcore JE, Pessier AP & Nichols DK. 1999. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis gen. et sp. nov., a chytrid pathogenic to amphibians. Mycologia 91:219-227.

Longcore JR, Longcore JE, Pessier AP, et al. 2007. Chytridiomycosis widespread in anurans of northeastern United States. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(2):435-444

Majji S, LaPatra S, Long S, Sample R, Bryan L, Sinning A & Chinchar VG. 2006 Rana catesbeiana virus Z (RCV-Z): A novel pathogenic ranavirus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 73:1-11

Majji S, Thodima V, Sample R, Whitley D, Deng Y, Mao J, and Chinchar VG.  Transcriptome analysis of frog virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae.  Virology 391: 293 - 303.

Maniero G & Robert J. 2004. Phylogenetic conservation of gp96-mediated atigen-specific cellular immunity: new evidence from adoptive cell transfer in Xenopus.Transplantation 78:1415-1422.

Maniero G, Morales H, Gantress J & Robert J. 2006. Generalization of a long-lasting protective, and neutralizing antibody response to the ranavirus FV3 by the frog Xenopus. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 30:649-57.

Marantelli G, Berger L, Speare R & Keegan L. 2004. Changes in distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and keratin during tadpole development leading to high mortality after metamorphosis. Pacific Conservation Biology 10(1):173- 179.

Marr S, Goyos A, Gantress J, Maniero G & Robert J. 2005. CD91 up-regulates upon immune stimulation in Xenopus adult but not larval peritoneal leukocytes. Immunogenetics 56: 735-742.

Mazzoni R, Cunningham AA, Daszak P, Apolo A, Perdomo E, & Speranza G. 2003. An Emerging Pathogen of Wild Amphibians and the International Trade in Frogs (Rana catesbeiana). Emerging Infectious Diseases 9:995-998.

McDonald KR, Mendez D, Muller R, Freeman AB & Speare R. 2005. Decline in the prevalence of chytridiomycosis in upland frog populations in North Queensland, Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 11(2):114-120.

Mech SG, Storfer A, Ernst J, Reudink M & Maloney S. 2003. Polymorphic microsatellite primers for tiger salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum. Molecular Ecology Notes 3:79-81.

Mendelson, J. R.  III, K. R. Lips, R. W. Gagliardo, G.  Rabb, J. P. Collins et al.  2006. Confronting amphibian declines and extinctions. Science 313:48

Mendelson, JR III, Lips KR, Diffendorfer JE, Gagliardo RW, Rabb GB, Collins JP, Daszak P, Ibanez R, Zippel KC, Stuart SN, Gascon C, DaSilva HR, Burrowes P, Lacy RC, Bolanos F, Coloma LA, Wright KM, Wake DB. 2006. Responding to Amphibian Loss: Response. Science 314:1541-15

Miller DL, Storfer A, Gray MJ. 2008. Ranaviruses in caudates: pathology and conservation issues. IN: Current Topics in Amphibian Medicine and Husbandry. Ed by K. Wright and B. Whitaker. Kreiger Publishing Company, Florida, USA

Molyneux DH, Chivian E, Morse SS, Bos R et al. 2003. Report from working group V: Ecosystem disruption, biodiversity, and human infectious diseases. In Biodiversity: Its Importance to Human Health. Chivian E, editor. World Health Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme.

Montgomery, C. E., E .J. Griffith Rodriguez, H. L. Ross, C. A. Jaramillo, and K. R. Lips. 2006. Urotheca decipiens (Collared Glasstail Snake).  Diet. Herpetological Review. 38(3):343

Montgomery CE, Goldberg SR, Bursey CS, Lips KA. 2006. Two new tropical colubrid snake hosts for the pentastomid worm, Kiricephalus coarctatus (Pentastmide:Porocephalidae) from Panama. Texas Journal of Science 58(3):xx-xx

Morales H, Gantress J, Cohen N & Robert J. 2003. Nodulated expression of the endoplasmic reticulum resident gp96 in Xenopus B cells upon bacteria stimulation. Cell Ch8:265-271.

Morales H & Robert J. 2007. In vivo characterization of primary and secondary anti-ranavirus CD8 T cell responses in Xenopus laevis. Journal of Virology 81:2240-2248.

Morales H, Robert J. 2008. In vivo and in vitro techniques for comparative study of antiviral T-cell responses in the amphibian Xenopus. Biological Procedures Online Pages 1-8

Morehouse E, James TY, Ganley ARD, Vilgalys R, Berger L & Longcore JE. 2003. Multilocus sequence typing suggests the chytrid pathogen of amphibians is a recently emerged clone. Molecular Ecology 12:395-403.

Morgan JAT, Brendenberg VT, Rachowicz LJ, et al. 2007. Population genetics of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States 104(34):13845-13850

Nichols DC, Lamirande EW, Pessier AP & Longcore JE. 2001. Experimental transmission of cutaneous chytridiomycosis in dendrobatid frogs. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 37:1-11.

Nordhaus W, Peteet D, Allen C, Ausubel J, Cook E, Daszak P et al. 2001. Report on a workshop on the impacts of abrupt climate change on economic and ecological systems. National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C.

North, S., and Alford, R. A. 2008. Intensity of infection and sampling locality affect the distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis among body regions on green-eyed tree frogs (Litoria genimaculata).  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 81:177-188. 

Padgett-Flohr GE & Longcore JE. 2005. Ambystoma californiense (California Tiger Salamander). Fungal infection. Herpetological Review 36:50-51.

Padget-Flohr GE, Longcore JE. 2007. Taricha torosa fungal infection. Herp Review 38:176-177

Pallister J, Goldie S, Coupar B & Hyatt A. 2005. Promoter activity in the 5' flanking regions of the Bohle iridovirus ICP 18, ICP 46 and major capsid protein genes. Archives of Virology 150(9):1911-9

Pallister J, Gould A, Harrison D, et al. 2007. Development of real-time PCR assays for the detection and differentiation of Australian and European ranaviruses. Journal of Fish Diseases 30(7):427-438

Parris MJ. 2004. Hybrid response to pathogen infection in interspecific crosses between two amphibian species (Anura: Ranidae). Evolutionary Ecology Research 6:457-471.

Parris MJ & Baud DR. 2004. Interactive effects of a heavy metal and chytridiomycosis on gray treefrog larvae (Hyla chrysosecelis). Copeia 2004:343-349.

Parris MJ & Beaudoin JG. 2004. Chytridiomycosis impacts predator-prey interactions in larval amphibian communities. Oecologia 140:626-632.

Parris MJ & CorneliusTO. 2004. Fungal pathogen causes competitive and developmental stress in larval amphibian communities. Ecology 85:3385-3395.

Parris MJ, Davis A & Collins JP. 2004. Single-host pathogen effects on mortality and behavioral responses to predators in salamanders (Urodela: Ambystomatidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1477-1483.

Parris MJ, Storfer A, Collins JP & Davidson EW. 2005. Life history responses to pathogens in Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) larvae. Journal of Herpetology 39:366-372.

Parris MJ, Reese E & Storfer A. 2006. Antipredator behavior of chytridiomycosis-infected leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84:58-65.

Pascolini R, Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Fagotti A, Di Rosa I, Tei S, Vagnetti D & Bucci S. 2003. Parasitism by Dermocystidium ranae in a population of Rana esculenta complex in Central Italy and designation of Amphibiocystidium n. gen. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 56:65-74.

Pasmans F, Zwart P, Hyatt AD. 2004. Chytridiomycosis in the Central American bolitoglossine salamander (Bolitoglossa dofleini). The Veterinary Record 154(5):153.

Patz JA, Daszak P, Tabor GM, Aguirre AA, Pearl M, Epstein J, Wolfe ND, Kilpatrick AM, Foufopoulos J, Molyneux D, Bradley DJ & Members of the Working Group Land Use Change and Disease Emergence. 2004. Unhealthy Landscapes: Policy Recommendations on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence. Environmental Health Perspectives 112:1092-1098.

Phillott AD, Skerratt LF, McDonald KR, Lemckert FL, Hines HB, Clarke JM, Alford RA, Speare R 2007. Toe-clipping as an acceptable method of identifying anurans in mark recapture studies. Herpetological Review 38(3):305-308

Picco AM, Brunner JL & Collins JP. 2007. Susceptibility of the endangered California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense, to ranavirus infection. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43:427-438

Picco, AM, Collins JP. 2007. Fungal and viral pathogen occurrence in Costa Rican amphibians. Journal of Herpetology 41(4):746-749

Picco, AM, Collins, JP. 2008. Amphibian commerce as a likely source of pathogen pollution..Conservation Biology, 22 (6):1582-1589(8)

Piotrowski JS, Annis SL & Longcore JE. 2001. Physiology, zoospore behavior, and enzyme production of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid pathogenic to amphibians. Phytopathology 91:S121.

Piotrowski JS, Annis SL, & Longcore JE. 2004. Physiology of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid pathogen of amphibians. Mycologia 96(1):9-15.

Powell P. 2003. Frog dip detects killer fungus. Infection-detecting bath could aid conservation. Nature (overview of sampling).

Puschendorf, R., Alford, R.A., and Rowley, J.J.L.  2008.  Climate change and amphibian declines.  Pp. 50-51 In Stuart, S.N., Hoffman, M., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Berridge, R.J., Ramani, P., and Young, B.E., eds.  Threatened Amphibians of the World.  Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Puschendorf, R., Carnaval, A. C., VanDerWal, J., Chaves, G., Bolaños, F., Zumbado-Ulate, H., Alford, R. A.  2009.  Distribution models for the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Costa Rica: proposing climatic refuges as a conservation tool.  Diversity and Distributions 15:401-408. 

Rachowicz LR, Hero JM, Alford RA, Morgan JAT, Vredenburg VA, Collins JP, Taylor JW & Briggs CJ. 2005. The novel and endemic pathogen hypotheses: competing explanations for the origin of emerging diseases of wildlife. Conservation Biology 19:1441-1448

Rachowicz LJ, Briggs CJ. 2007. Quantifying the disease transmission function: effects of density on Batrachocytrium dendrobatidis transmission in the mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa. Journal of Animal Ecology 76(4):711-721

Rahardyansah. 2004. Morphological abnormalities in frogs of West Java, Indonesia. Froglog 64:1-2.

Ranvestel TW, Lips KR, Pringle CM, Whiles MR & Bixby RJ. 2004. Neotropical tadpoles influence stream benthos: evidence for ecological consequences of amphibian declines. Freshwater Biology 49:274-285.

Rau L, Cohen N & Robert J. 2001. MHC restricted CD8 T-cells: A phylogenetic perspective. Transplantation 72:1830-1835.

Regester KJ, Lips KR & Whiles MR. 2006. Larval production, emergence production, and oviposition by salamanders (Ambystomatidae) contribute to energy flow between habitats in a forest ecosystem of southern Illinois. Oecologia 147:303-314

Regester KJ, Whiles MR, Lips KR. 2008. Variation in the trophic basis of production and energy flow associated with emergence of larval salamander assemblages (Ambystomatidae) from forest ponds. Freshwater Biology

Retallick RWR, McCallum H, Speare R. 2004. Endemic infection of the amphibian chytrid fungus in a frog community post-decline. PLoS Biology 2(11):e351.

Retallick RWR, Miera V, Richards KL, Field KJ & Collins JP. 2006. A non-lethal technique for detecting the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on tadpoles. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72: 77-85..

Retallick WR, Miera, V. 2007. Strain differences in the amphibian pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and non-permanent, sub-lethal effects of infection. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 75:201-207

Richards SJ, & Alford RA. 2005. Structure and dynamics of a rainforest frog (Litoria genimaculata) population in northern Queensland. Australian Journal of Zoology 53:229-236.

Richards SJ, Alford RA & Bradfield KS. 2006,. The great frog decline in Australasia: causes, developments, and conservation. In Evolution and Biogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Merrick JR, Archer M, Hickie G & Lee M, editors. Australian Scientific Publishers, Sydney.

Ridenhour, BJ, Storfer A. 2008,. Geographically variable selection in Ambystoma tigrinum Virus (Iridoviridae) thoughout the Western United States. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21(4): 1151-1159.

Ringia A, Lips KR. 2007. Field and lab studies of reproduction, growth and development in Eurycea lucifuga. Herpetologica 63(3):258-268

Robert J, Rau L, Horton J, Horton T, Gantress J, Bell A & Cohen N. 2001. Identification and characterization of Xenopus CD8 T cells expressing an NK-associated molecule. European Journal of Immunology 32:1574-83.

Robert J, Gantress J, Rau L, Bell A & Cohen N. 2002. Minor histocompatibility antigen-specific MHC-restricted CD8 T-cell responses elicited by heat shock proteins. Journal of Immunology 168:1697-1703.

Robert J, Cohen N, Maniero GD, Goyos A, Morales H & Gantress J. 2003. Evolution of the immunomodulatory role of the heat shock protein gp96. Cellular and Molecular Biology 49:263-275.

Robert J, Gantress J, Cohen N & Maniero GD. 2004. Xenopus as an experimental model for studying evolution of hsp-immune system interactions In Methods: A Companion to Methods in Enzymology (HSP-Immune System Interactions) vol. 32:42-53. Srivastava P, editor. Academic Press.

Robert J, Morales H, Buck W, Cohen N, Marr S & Gantress J. 2005. Histopathogenesis and immune responses to FV3 virus infection in Xenopus. Virology 332:667-675.

Robert J, Abranowitz L, Gantress J, et al. 2007. Xenopus laevis: A possible vector of ranavirus infection? Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43(4):645-652

Robertson JR, Lips KR, & Heist E. 2008. Fine scale gene flow and multi-year comparison of individual dispersal among subpopulations of Centrolenella prosoblepon, a Neotropical stream frog. Revista de Biologia Tropical 56:13-26

Rojas S & Davidson EW. 2004. Influence of temperature on ranavirus infection in salamanders, Ambystoma tigrinum. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 62:95-100.

Rollins-Smith LA & Hodnett DS. 2000. An investigation of the UV sensitivity of two fungal pathogens associated with global amphibian declines. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 24:S46.

Rollins-Smith LA. 2001. Neuroendocrine-immune system interactions in amphibians: Implications for understanding global amphibian declines Immunological Research 23(2&3):273-280.

Rollins-Smith LA, Doersam JK, Longcore JE, Taylor SK, Shamblin JC, Carey C & Zasloff MA. 2002. Antimicrobial peptide defenses against pathogens associated with global amphibian declines. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 26:63-72.

Rollins-Smith LA, Reinert LK, Miera V & Conlon JM. 2002. Antimicrobial peptide defenses of the Tarahumara frog, Rana tarahumarae. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 297:361-367.

Rollins-Smith LA, Carey C, Longcore JE, Doersam JK, Boutte A, Bruzgal JE & Conlon JM. 2002. Activity of antimicrobial skin peptides from ranid frogs against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the chytrid fungus associated with global amphibian declines. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 26:471-479.

Rollins-Smith LA, Carey C, Reinert LK, Miera V, Davidson EW, Tyler MJ & Bowie J. 2003. Antimicrobial peptide defenses of Australian frogs against the chytrid fungus associated with global amphibian declines. In Program and Abstracts of the International Congress of Developmental and Comparative Immunology pp67. Dyrynda E, editor. University of St. Andrews, Scotland, UK.

Rollins-Smith LA, Carey C, Conlon JM, Reinert LK, Doersam JK, Bergman T, Silberring J, Lankinen H, & Wade D. 2003. Activities of temporin family peptides against the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) associated with global amphibian declines. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 47:1157-1160.

Rollins-Smith LA & Cohen N. 2003. Hormones and the immune system of amphibians. In Amphibian Biology Vol. 6: Endocrinology pp2377-2391. Heatwole H, editor. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, Australia.

Rollins-Smith LA, Hopkins BD & Reinert LK. 2004. An amphibian model to test the effects of xenobiotic chemicals on development of the hematopoietic system. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23:2863-2867.

Rollins-Smith LA & Smits JEG. 2005. Amphibian Models and Approaches to Immunotoxicology. In Investigative Immunotoxicology pp77-90. Tryphonas N, Fournier M, Blakley B, Brousseau P & Smith JEG, editors. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Rollins-Smith LA, KingJD, Nielsen PF, Sonnevend A & Conlon JM. 2005. An antimicrobial peptide from the skin secretions of the mountain chicken frogLeptodactylus fallaz (Anura: Leptodactylidae). Regulatory Peptides 124:173-178.

Rollins-Smith LA, Reinert LK, O'Leary CJ, Houston LE & Woodhams DC. 2005. Antimicrobial Peptide Defenses in Amphibian Skin. Integrative & Comparitive Biology 45:137-142.

Rollins-Smith LA & Conlon JM. 2005. Antimicrobial peptide defenses against chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibian populations. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 29:589-598.

Rollins-Smith LA, Woodhams DC, Reinert LK, Vredenburg VT, Briggs CJ, Nielsen PF & Conlon JM. 2006. Antimicrobial peptide defenses of the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa). Developmental & Comparative Immunology. 30:831-842

Rollins-Smith LA, Ramsey JP, Reinert LK, Woodhams DC, Livo LJ, Carey C. 2009.. Immune defenses of Xenoups laevis against Batrabhocytrium dendrobatidis. Frontiers in Bioscience S1, 68-91.

Rollins-Smith LA, Ramsey JP, Reinert LK, Woodhams DC, Livo LJ, Carey C, 2008,. Use of Xenopus laevis and Bufo boreas to study immune defenses of amphibians against lethal amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Frontiers in Bioscience S1, 68-91.

Rosenberg MS & Kumar S. 2001. Incomplete Taxon Sampling is not a Problem for Phylogenetic Inference. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 98:10751-10756.

Rosenberg MS & Kumar S. 2003. Heterogeneity of nucleotide frequencies among evolutionary lineages and phylogenetic inference. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20:610-621.

Rowley J, Alford RA & Skerratt LF. 2006. The amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis occurs on freshwater shrimps in rainforest streams in northern Queensland, Australia. Ecohealth 3:49-52.

Rowley J, Skerratt LF, Alford RA & Campbell R. 2007.. Retreat sites of rainforest stream frogs are not a reservoir for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in North Queensland, Australia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 74:7-12

Rowley J & Alford RA. 2007. Techniques for tracking amphibians: the effects of tag attachment and harmonic direction finding versus radio telemetry. Amphibia-Reptilia 28:367-376

Rowley J & Alford RA. 2007. Non-contact infrared thermometers can accurately measure amphibian body temperatures. Herpetological Review.38:308-311.

Rowley J, Hemingway VA, Alford RA, Waycott M, Skerratt LF, Campbell R & Webb R. 2007. Experimental infection and repeat survey data indicate the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis may not occur on freshwater crustaceans in northern Queensland, Australia. Ecohealth 4:31-36

Rowley J & Alford RA. 2007. Behaviour of Australian rainforest stream frogs may affect the transmission of chytridiomycosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 77:1-9.

Rowley J & Alford RA. Submitted. Characterizing operative environmental temperature in amphibians with variable rates of evaporative water loss. Copeia

Rowley J & Alford RA.. Submitted. Behavior, Microenvironment, and Disease Vulnerability in Tropical Australian Frogs. PLoS Biology.

Rowley JJL, Chan SKF, Tang WS, et al. 2007. Survey for the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Hong Kong in native amphibians and in the internatioanl amphibian trade. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 78(2):87-95

Rowley JJL, Alford, RA. 2007. Techniques for tracking amphibians: The effects of tag attahment, and harmonic direction finding versus radio telemetry. Amphibia-Reptilia 28:367-376

Rowley JJL, Alford RA. 2007. Movement patterns and habitat use of rainforest stream frogs in Northern Queensland, Australia: implications for extinction vulnerability. Wildlife Research 34:371-378

 Rowley, J. J. L., and R. A. Alford. 2009.  Models in field studies of temperature and moisture.  Chapter 21 In:  Dodd, C. K., ed., Amphibian Ecology and Conservation: A Handbook of Techniques. Oxford University Press. 

Rowley, J.J.L. and R.A. Alford.  2009.  Factors affecting interspecific variation in susceptibility to disease in amphibians.  In Heatwole, H. (ed) Conservation and Decline, Vol 9 in the series Amphibian Biology. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.

Rowley, J. J. L., and Alford, R. A.. 2009. Movement and habitat use of the endangered Australian frog Nyctimystes dayi.  Herpetological Review 40(1):29-32.

Ryan MJ & Lips KR. 2004. Sibon argus diet. Herpetological Review 35(3):278

Ryan NJ, Lips KR, Eichholz MW. 2008. Decline and extirpation of an endangered Panamanian stream frog population (Craugastor punctariolus) due to an outbreak of chytridiomycosis. Biological Conservation 141(6):1636-1647.

Ryan, M. J., J. M. Savage, and K. R. Lips. (in press).  A New Species of Craugastor (Anura: Craugastoridae) of the Punctariolus Species Series from West-Central Panama.  Copeia.

Ryan, M. J., K. R. Lips and J. T. Giermakowski. (in press).  A new species of Pristimantis (Anura: Terrarana: Strabomantinae) from Coclé Province, Panama.  Journal of Herpetology.

Sample RC, Bryan L, Long S, Majji S, Hoskins G, Sinning A, Oliver J & Chinchar VG. 2007. Inhibitition of iridovirus protein synthesis and virus replication by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeted to the major capsid protein, the 18 kDa immediate-early protein, and a viral homolog of RNA polymerase II. Virology 338:311-320

Savage JM, Hollingsworth BD, Lips KR & Jaslow AP. 2004. A new species of rainfrog (Genus Eleutherodactylus) from the Serrania de Tabasara, west-central Panama, and reanalysis of the fitzingeri species group. Herpetologica 60(4):119-129

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